This article discusses how 해운대 고구려 occupational groups that are traditionally dominated by men, such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), are currently being filled predominantly by women. It also discusses the gender pay gap and how it affects women in different fields.
Men prefer to work in occupations that are related to the STEM fields. According to Table B2, in 2017, only 4.6 percent of those employed in STEM occupations were women, while 10.3 percent were men. In addition, the highest profile health and technology science occupations saw a slightly increased share of women since 2008; however, the gender pay gap still exists with women earning less than men in these fields.
Men prefer to work in professional and related occupations in the public and private sector. This includes positions such as lawyers, accountants, engineers, and physicians. These occupations account for 15.4 percent of men’s total employment. Additionally, men occupy top positions in these fields; they hold the largest share of business financial occupations and management business operations. In the health care sector, there is a large share of women found in care education, welfare, and social service occupations. Women also comprise a large share of completed degree holders occupying top positions in this sector; however it is still largely male-dominated with men holding the largest share of positions (41 percent). Overall, men prefer working in professional and related occupations; however women are still found occupying a significant number of these positions (15.4 percent).
In the U.S., many occupations are female dominated such as social professions, accountants and human resources managers. However, there are far too few women in most male-dominated occupations, such as electricians and automotive service technicians. These jobs are predominantly filled by male workers and are overrepresented by men. Moreover, men also prefer to take up jobs in management positions as well as technicians and mechanics; these jobs make up a large share of professional positions that men prefer to take up. Additionally, men also prefer service positions such as education administrators, designers and cooks; these typically involve manual labour rather than intellectual work.
According to U.S. Census Bureau data, 8.1 percent of professional and sales workers are women, while only 3 percent of construction managers are female. The occupations that most men prefer include construction laborers, administrative associates, business professionals, and certain professional fields such as cultural professionals and associate professionals.
According to a recent analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, men constitute about 6 percent of all workers in occupations that earn higher wages for women, such as nursing aides and assistants, cooks and food service staff, and other craft and garment trades. Women make up over half of all occupations in table services, hospitality craft work and home health aides but only a small portion in most professional fields. Black women are concentrated in service occupations such as nursing aides and assistants, cooks and food service staff, as well as home health aides. These groups make up the majority of black women’s employment opportunities. Other fields such as managers in services sector are also important to black women’s employment opportunities although they constitute a much smaller portion than other groups. Overall, men tend to prefer occupations with higher wages for women or those that involve working with tools or technology rather than those that require more manual labor or care-related tasks such as cooking or cleaning.
This gender pay gap is evident in the data that shows that men earn more than women regardless of education and training. Additionally, when looking at STEM jobs, there is a gap among workers based on their level of education with masters and professional doctorate levels earning the highest earnings. The earnings are lowest for those without a degree or with only a high school diploma. White women have seen sizeable pay gaps when compared to white graduates, as men with similar educational backgrounds earned significantly more than women.
Women earn majorities in predominantly female roles, such as nursing, social work, and elementary education. However, more Asian women are now earning STEM research doctorates, and professional doctoral programs have become more gender balanced. Black women are now earning STEM degrees at rates comparable to white men and women. The balance between men and women in the labor force is shifting; in some occupations women make up 50% of the workforce while in others they make up less than 20%. Moreover, while 42 highly gender-segregated occupations depress wages for all genders and races, men earned higher wages than women who had earned STEM degrees. Despite this gender gap in occupational earnings overall among those who had earned STEM degrees, men still preferred to take on certain roles that were traditionally male-dominated. This includes jobs related to health care and labor. Men tend to prefer these types of jobs because they may provide higher wages or greater opportunities for advancement than traditionally female-dominated fields do.
For example, demanding construction jobs are viewed as being more masculine and may offer more opportunities for men to earn higher wages than women in managerial or professional occupations. This has led to an underrepresentation of women in managerial positions. Additionally, the financial services industry is dominated by men, which further limits the opportunities for women to break into traditionally male-dominated roles. This can create a sense that men are more likely to succeed at these types of jobs than women are.
Paid women in many male-dominated industries, such as those involving manual labor and fields of service, often face significantly less career satisfaction than their male counterparts. Men are more likely to receive job training and have more opportunities for advancement than women. This means that men have a better chance of securing high-paying management positions, while women may remain stuck in traditionally female dominated roles. The financial services industry is one example where men are more likely to be accepted into top MBA programs and given the opportunity to take on higher paying jobs and other positions of authority. In a survey of high potentials, men were more likely to receive training and development opportunities than women were.
Black women’s employment is even worse off than their white and Asian counterparts. This is especially true in the work that black men get, as they tend to outperform their female counterparts. Firefighters, accountants, and domestic and care occupations are some of the most common employers for black men. Cleaning roles, child care workers, personal care aides and home health aides are some of the least common. One in five people employed in individual households make a disproportionate percentage of workers in these roles.